Board views are used to categorize information on one or two dimensions. A typical example is a kanban board with states as columns and, for instance, type of work as swimlanes.
Picture: an example of a board view
List views can be used, for instance, to prioritize items or just to have all items belonging to some category (e.g. bugs, high priority items, and so on) listed together.
Picture: an example of a list view
Timeline views display items with a start and end date. The dates can be either given or they can be calculated, for instance, using history.
Picture: an example of a timeline view
Time series views are used to depict graphs for changes in amounts over time. For instance, you could calculate how issues have been fixed over a given period.
Picture: an example of a time series view
Tree views are useful to show hierarchical data such as work breakdown structures.
Picture: an example of a tree view